Evaluating the Climatic Change Effect on the water Quality of Euphrates River from Haditha to Al-Hindiya/ Iraq
Keywords:Climate change; Discharge rates; Euphrates River; Iraq; Total Dissolved Solids
Recently, Iraq’s rivers are suffering from extreme shortage in water due to the climate change effect represented by rainfall rareness and high temperature degrees. Moreover, the increasing global climate change along with its effects on the discharge of Euphrates River within the reach extended from Haditha reservoir to Al- Hindiya barrage over the years 2005-2010 were investigated. This study aims to evaluate the climatic changes on the water quality of Euphrates River through its effect on discharge rates for the years from 2005 to 2010 and compared the findings with the results of the studies pre and after the present study. The results showed a remarkable temporally increase in temperature, with noticeable decrease in rainfall rates. Accordingly, discharge was decreased spatially and temporally, it is found a direct correlation between discharge and rainfall. Total dissolved solids as well as major cations (magnesium, calcium, and sodium), along with major anions (chlorides, sulfates and Bicabonates) were showed a negative correlation with discharge. Total dissolved solids and major ions were increased gradually downstream. It was found there is a negative relation between discharge and total dissolved solids and other major ions. Average values of total dissolved solids were 754- 931 ppm in Haditha and Al- Hindiya respectively. Magnesium is the prevailing cation in the Haditha and Al- Hindiya sites. Cations follow the pattern magnesium > sodium > calcium. whereas the sulphates is the prevalent anion, anions follow the pattern sulphates > chloride > bicarbonate. Average concentrations of total dissolved solids as well as major ions of the current study are relatively higher than the studies done before year 2003, and they are close or less than those studies after the year 2003, therefore; it is expected for the Euphrates water quality to be worsening in the future years.