Urban Environmental Challenges and Management Facing Amman Growing City
Keywords:Urban planning, environmental challenges, Greater Amman Municipality, greenhouse gas, Bus rapid transit, mitigation measures, environmental expenditure
Environmental degradation and climate change implications on urban areas and cities are a global concern. Urban environment management aims to mitigate the adverse impacts of rapid urbanization. This method identified and measured the effect of a built-in environment. The environmental management of Amman city, considering its exponential urban growth, has witnessed several positive transformations, including urban planning and the establishment of institutions, regulations, laws, mitigation measures, and action plans to absorb the negative impacts. This study documented the existing situation and evaluated the same by reviewing the environmental challenges of urbanization that Amman city is tackling. Particular attention was given to the mitigation measures adopted and the ecological protection expenditure related to overcoming these challenges; these were considered the indicators to measure the efforts taken by public institutions towards environmental development, thereby enhancing city resident's quality of life. Data were collected on the ecological expenditures of the municipalities and other administrative divisions of Jordan. This paper's scope and aim are to present the scholarly literature on urban environmental management in Amman city concerning coping with environmental risks and challenges and the importance of urban planning and initiatives for environmental sustainability and the well-being of citizens. For instance, Amman was the first Arab city to adopt a climate plan to tackle environmental concerns such as inefficient land use and the price of imported energy. Specific suggestions and recommendations are also presented in this study, which can help formulate a successful approach towards a sustainable, resilient and city. One of the essential recommendations that the survey reveals is the need for tools and methods to identify and evaluate the most effective measures to increase the environmental management of Amman's urban city. This report will initially contribute to policy formulation and urban planning works for Amman city. This paper discusses the GAM's environmental problems, potential mitigating strategies, and the effects of population growth and urbanization during the past decade. Traffic congestion and pollution are two additional significant problems in GAM. To address GAM's environmental problems, the study's initial results showed the need to implement specific measures, such as BRT. BRT is supported by policies along the two trunk lines, enabling the city to expand past comprehensive housing projects into more walkable, mixed-use communities with carbon-free electricity and green building standards.