Integrating Geography Skills in the Middle Grades: Instructional Change in South Carolina, USA


  • Michael MEWBORNE, Jerry T. MITCHELL University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA


Geography Skills, Academic Standards, Middle Level Students


In 2019, the State of South Carolina (USA) adopted new social studies standards with an emphasis on disciplinary skills in addition to content throughout the social studies areas of history, geography, civics, and economics. These skills were introduced for all grades, kindergarten through grade 12. Geography courses were added in grades 3 and 7. The standards specify and deconstruct six geography skills to be taught in these classrooms. These skills include Mapping; Models and Representations; Gather Evidence and Communicate Findings; Conditions, Connections, and Regions; Scale; and Distribution and Pattern. Social studies coordinators at the school district level were interviewed on the successes and obstacles teachers are experiencing, and on what future actions were being considered to address these skills in teaching