Designs, Techniques, and Reporting Strategies in Geography Education: A Review of Research Methods

Joann ZADROZNY, Caroline MCCLURE, Jinhee LEE, Injeong JO

Texas State University, San Marcos, USA


Research Design; Geography Education Research; Quantitative Research; Qualitative Research; Mixed Methods Research; Methodologies ,


A wide variety of research is being completed and published in geography education. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the different types of methodologies, research designs, and techniques used by geography education researchers. Analyzing three geography education journals, we found 191 research articles published about geography education, of which, 55 used a quantitative design, 65 used a qualitative design, and 71 used mixed methods. This article highlights specific articles to provide examples of how a variety of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods techniques were conducted and presented in the literature. The implications of this article is to provide geography education researchers with guidance when reporting research results in an effort to promote replicability and longitudinal research. Geography education benefits from all types of methodological designs and techniques, each serving a different purpose based upon the individuals’ inquires and research questions.