Criminal Confrontation to Combat Corruption in Light of Iraqi Laws and Regulatory Bodies

    Dr. Raad Tomah Kwad

    Abstract

    The phenomenon of administrative and financial corruption is one of the most dangerous phenomena facing countries, especially developing countries, including Iraq, which results in paralysis in the process of construction and economic development, including the destruction of the economy and financial and administrative capacity and its impact on the societal structure and the welfare of society. The phenomenon of corruption is a phenomenon that has emerged at the internal, regional and international levels. It requires confronting it by the national legislative system by means of global means represented by enacting internal laws and joining the conventions and organizations concerned with combating corruption. Corruption is like a huge iceberg at the bottom of the sea. hidden and much greater. Iraq has witnessed waves of economic, financial and administrative corruption that appeared in a striking way in the eighties of the last century and intensified its degrees in the nineties of it due to the economic sanctions imposed on Iraq, in which the living standards of citizens and employees decreased very dramatically, forcing some weak souls to resort to the practice of corruption from to cover the usual expenses of their lives. After 2003, corruption became a regular phenomenon along with the weak roles played by the supervisory authorities such as the Financial Supervision Bureau or the Integrity Commission and the offices of general inspectors before its abolition, and the punitive provisions contained in the Penal Code No. (111) of 1969 amended and the Integrity Commission Law No. (30) of 2011 And the Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Law No. 39 of 2015 and the Central Bank of Iraq Law No. 82 of 2017, despite the announcement by successive governments that they are fighting corruption, and therefore it is difficult for the government to eliminate it completely, as this amount of corruption and its methods have penetrated the corridors of ministries In Iraq, it would be a major reason for activating punitive texts to combat this scourge, and urging the regulatory bodies in all ministries to play their role in combating financial and administrative corruption. The fight against corruption by the regulatory bodies is a vital issue in the political and economic systems in all countries of the world, including Iraq, which has put in place monitoring bodies that have confronted this scourge rooted in the societal structure since the establishment of the modern Iraqi state in 1921, and its development and impact varied in the political structure of the successive Iraqi political systems. Up to the year 2003 and the subsequent fall of the political system, the establishment of a pluralistic democratic political system, and the adoption of a permanent constitution in 2005. However, the new system faced many challenges that differed in their severity and gravity. Corruption was one of the most important of these challenges, and that the most important risks of corruption at the local level are waste of public funds, misallocation of resources and development potentials in local units, inefficiency of public services provided to citizens, weakening the investment climate, and low economic growth. Many researchers and scholars have classified corruption into a number of forms and behavioral manifestations.

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