The new Western-style education was considered an important contribution in the transition process from traditional education to modern education in Asia countries from the second half of the 19th century. In Asia, this period stood out as the success of Japan and Siam and became a frame of reference for other countries in the region. This main aim of this study is to compare the similarities and differences of the educational reform program in Thailand and Japan in the direction of bourgeois democracy in the historical period of second half of 19th century to early 20th century. To clarify this issue, we mainly use the historical method, the logical method, the comparative method, analytical method and interdisciplinary method to analyse the context of reform implementation, giving similarities and differences in educational reform of both countries. It is hoped that our results and discussion, practical meanings and lessons learned may be useful and worth for Asian countries.