China and Russia are two big countries on the international stage and friendly neighbors facing the 21st century. According to statistics from the Education Office of the Russian Embassy in China, as many as 61,000 Chinese students were studying Russian in schools a few days ago. The correct development of Russian education must be based on correct educational theories. Sociolinguists pointed out the direction of Russian teaching. They proposed a communicative competence theory based on the essential social functions of language, which was applied to Russian teaching. This article is based on communicative competence, combined with the actual situation of Russian students in Chinese universities. At the same time, it focuses on the current problems in Russian teaching and establishes the goal of cultivating students' Russian communicative competence. Under the guidance of correct theory, China's Russian education can be more advanced, and only students who have received Russian education can better adapt to the needs of society. Through the introduction and summary of related theories and research results, the author believes that contemporary teachers should have the concept of cross-cultural teaching. Able to improve teaching content, methods, forms, and technical means, while paying more attention to guiding students to pay attention to Russian cultural phenomena in the teaching process. Enable students to communicate effectively in the Russian cultural background and effectively overcome cultural obstacles in Sino-Russian communication.